Domain: Eukaryotes

Kingdom: Animals

Subdomain: Eumetazoi

No rank: Double-sided symmetrical

No rank: Secondary

Type: Chordates

Subtype: Vertebrates

Infratype: Maxillary

Group: Fishes

Group: Bone fish

Subclass: Freshfishes

Infraclass: Bony Fish

Over Squad: Thistle

Series: Percomorphs

Subseries: Gobiida

Order: Gobiiformes

Family: Goby

Type: Goby

Goby - an amazing fish, so loved by fishermen of the Azov and Black Seas. Indeed, this is quite a budget tasty fish, which every tourist appreciates. However, few people know that there are many other different species that are no less popular and interesting in their features.

Origin of view and description

Photo: Bull

Goby is a ray-shaped fish of the perch family. It was first met a very long time ago in the Sea of ​​Azov. It is believed that it is from there that the history of this species of marine inhabitants originates. Although exotic species do not cause any interest among fishermen, the goby is more likely an object of fishing. Indeed, the Black Sea and Azov goby are many times more than populations of other species. The species of gobies is mainly determined by their habitat and features of appearance.

To date, the main types of bulls are known:

  • a sandbox;
  • gorlach;
  • tutsk;
  • round timber.

It is interesting that exotic species are practically not usually considered when analyzing this category of fish. But all of the above are found in the basin of the Black and Azov Seas. These are common subspecies of gobies, which are usually called ordinary. All of them are fisheries. There are practically no external differences in these species. The main difference is the size and slight differences in shades.

Interesting fact: In the city of Berdyansk, in the vicinity of the port, there is a monument to the breadwinner. This is due to particularly active fishing in the area. Indeed, for many years, local residents mainly survived thanks to this fish.

Appearance and features

Photo: What does a goby look like?

Goby in its external features does not apply to attractive fish. But at the same time, it has several important distinguishing features that help not to confuse it with any other fish:

  • from below the fins are fused in such a way that they form a suction cup. With its help, the goby can easily be attached to stones and other surfaces;
  • large mouth with large lips;
  • the abundance of colors makes it sometimes difficult to recognize, but according to the previous parameters it can still be identified.

The goby itself is a little yellowish with dark spots. At the same time, there are so many species now that it is impossible to definitely single out any one color. Depending on the type of fish under consideration, its parameters also differ. In length, it can be from a few centimeters to half a meter. Weight also varies from 30 grams to 1.5 kg.

The Azov goby, familiar to the bulk of people, is not particularly large in size, and also has a grayish tint. But exotic species living in vibrant countries have a brighter color. Shades of fish fins also differ. Basically they are transparent, but all kinds of ebbs are found up to reddish. The fins cannot be called too large. But the head of a bull for such a body is very massive.

Where does the goby live?

Photo: Goby fish

Goby lives in warm waters. In particularly cold climates, fish cannot survive. The Black and Azov Seas are the main habitats of the goby. The Caspian Sea, the Mediterranean Sea are also its favorite places. In a smaller amount, the goby is found in the Baltic. Also, fish can often be found in various estuaries.

In addition, some species of gobies prefer fresh water. We are talking about rivers, their tributaries, lakes. Bulls are mainly found in the basins of the Dnieper, Dniester, Danube, and Volga. Gobies are classified as bottom fish. They lead a sedentary lifestyle, prefer to stay as close to the shore at the bottom.

Goby is very leisurely. That is why it is not typical for seasonal migrations, as well as active movements. Only in anticipation of severe frosts does the fish go farther from the coast and prefer to stay in the depths.

Especially gobies love to build minks in the sand at the bottom. They can also wait between stones or in silt - these are their favorite places where they feel as comfortable as possible. Usually a goby prefers to build a hole in which 1-2 fish fit. But sometimes they can live in larger flocks. Depending on the type of calf, they can live in both fresh and sea water.

By the way, many imagine the goby as a local fish. In fact, they live all over the world. It is difficult to find a place where bulls would not be found at all. You can meet a lot of exotic bulls at all. About a third of the representatives of this species live in corals.

What does a goby eat?

Photo: River goby

The bull-calf is extremely leisurely. That is why it is not very comfortable for him to spend a lot of time hunting other sea inhabitants. At the same time, he also does not seek to collect plant food. The solution for it is bottom dwellers. Among them, he chooses those that make a minimum of movements and do not move at high speed.

That is why the basis of the diet of the bull is: small larvae, crustaceans, shrimp, worms, mollusks, some species of fry. A bull-calf tries to find those types of fry that, like himself, do not lead an excessively active lifestyle.

The calf is quite voracious and therefore spends a lot of time looking for food. He often tries to hide in thickets or behind stones and then abruptly attack a shrimp or any other inhabitant of the sea, passing by. A large fish mouth allows you to swallow prey completely.

Some mistakenly believe that the goby is completely unpretentious in food. Indeed, he is not too picky, but he will not pick up garbage from the bottom. It is much easier for him to limit his diet altogether than to hunt actively or eat anything.

Interesting fact: If bad weather is rampant, the goby does not go hunting and tries to minimize its food. Instead, he waits in calm weather and only then returns to his usual way of life.

Features of character and lifestyle

Photo: Sea goby

Goby is not a particularly active fish. He prefers to lead a sedentary sedentary lifestyle. Active migration is not for him. Also, a bull cannot be called a school of flocks. He prefers to settle in small families. At the same time, even a bull-calf prefers not to go far, but to stick to its usual habitat, simply preparing the necessary place for this in advance, equipping a kind of house for spawning.

But still there are certain exceptions to the rules. Depending on the species, the goby may not approach the coast at all and even spawn in deep water. But other species that live in waters that are too fresh or salty can approach the shore to spawn or even go to the estuaries.

In any case, it’s not enough when the goby is ready for movement. He prefers not to travel long distances, much less often. He also does not go hunting too actively, preferring to wait for prey in ambush rather than to pursue it. That is why bulls often have certain difficulties in this matter.

Also, the goby is not particularly friendly towards other fish, preferring to lead a lonely lifestyle. The maximum for which he is ready: to live together with representatives of his own species, and then in small quantities, not all the time.

Interesting fact: Goby hates temperature changes. In this case, he can easily fall into a stupor, stop not only hunting and eating, but even move completely.

Social structure and reproduction

Photo: Blue goby

The goby begins to spawn in the spring. In March, a long spawning time begins. It is enough that the temperature rises to 10 degrees. After spawning, it will last until the very end of summer. Males are considered sexually mature in the second year of life. During spawning, they immediately change their color to a much darker one. After that, the male hides among the stones and begins to wait for the female, which will go to spawn.

If several bulls pretend to this place at once, then they can quite arrange real battles for the territory. The winner has to equip a kind of nest, where the females are then lured. One male can attract several females at once. Depending on the type under consideration, the female can sweep up to 7000 eggs at a time.

Caviar has a slightly sticky shell, with the help of which it is firmly fixed on the stones. It is interesting that immediately after spawning, the female can go about her business, while the male will guard his offspring for another month. Otherwise, there is a high risk of eggs being absorbed by bottom invertebrates. Males are not easy to protect their eggs from eating, but also take care of comfortable conditions for offspring. To provide the oxygen necessary for the eggs, they create intense streams of water in the fins, which just brings oxygen.

A month later, fry immediately appear from the larvae that emerge from the eggs. Bottom crustaceans - this is the main diet of babies in this period of time. But not for long. By the end of summer, bulls will be able to eat like any other adult fish. By the way, at this time the bulls are considered very noisy. To attract a female into its mink, the male makes sounds similar to growling or champing.

Natural goby enemies

Photo: Goby fish

Gobies are very vulnerable to predatory fish. The main reason is that the fish is very slow and slow. If other species, having no protection before the enemy, have every chance of escaping, then this option is excluded. A bull-calf swims extremely slowly, so he will not be able to escape.

Its advantage is only in coloring. A bull-calf is very inconspicuous externally (the bulk of the species) and it is not difficult for it to merge with soil, stone. Pike perch, stellate sturgeon, sturgeon - this is far from an incomplete list of those predators who like to eat gobies. Also, the Azov dolphin does not refuse to eat gobies.

But the most interesting thing is that some species prey on eating fry of other gobies. But not only in the body of water the bull is in danger. Like many other fish, the goby often suffers from attacks by birds. Herons are actively hunting various types of gobies. Herons are ready to compete even with a snake.

At the same time, however, many agree that people remain as dangerous as possible for gobies. They are more likely to contribute to a decrease in goby populations. Gobies are caught in every possible way imaginable. Weather conditions can also be dangerous for a bull, as these fish are very sensitive to them.

Population and species status

Photo: What does a goby look like?

Objectively assessing the calf population can be very problematic. The main reason is that today too many species of this fish are known. That is why it is rather difficult to say in general how the population is estimated. In addition, bulls are common throughout the world, so estimating their number is even approximately impossible.

Tracking a bull’s population is a pretty serious and important task. The reason is the increased industrial importance of this category of fish. This is why it is so important to control how much the population is shrinking. The overall population cannot be estimated. Goby has a rather small life cycle. Against this background, the number of bulls can be called approximately undulating. Sometimes the change in quantity can reach hundreds of times.

Although today there are a lot of bulls in Azov, its catch is strictly controlled at the state level. For example, every year when a fish spawns, it is forbidden to catch it. Also at this time it is forbidden to drill the bottom, to carry out any work dangerous for the fish. Although the Azov and Black Sea gobies officially belong to the category of fish that do not need protection. But some species of exotic fish are so rare that special state programs are being developed to protect them.

Guarding a bull

Photo: Red Bull Goby

Goby - an unusual and versatile fish in terms of evaluation. Its quantity and the need for protection directly depends on the species in question. This also applies to the region of residence. Often, when a bull-calf is mentioned, many represent the Azov or Black Sea, which are very numerous in these regions. This is not to say that even with abundant fishing, fish are at risk. The reason is that fish often reproduces a lot. So the natural balance is not disturbed.

But there are more rare species that should be under state protection. For example, the bull-calf is listed in the Red Book, but only in some regions. Therefore, it is impossible to say exactly how the situation with this population as a whole is. Each region has the right to assess the situation specifically for itself, which is why in some places certain types of gobies are indeed recognized as rare.

Especially often it is on this issue about exotic varieties that are especially popular among aquarists, but there are no favorable conditions for active reproduction. To increase the population of missing species, it is enough just to more actively begin to grow fish in artificial conditions. It should be noted that not all species are objects of fishing, therefore exotic bulls are usually completely protected from this.

Thus, goby, although it is a very common fish, continues to actively increase its population. That small fish may well be either delicious or very beautiful - it all depends on the type in question. There are a lot of species today, starting from the most common and ending with truly exotic fish.

Watch the video: Top 10 Goby fish for Your Reef Tank (February 2020).

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