Hungarian mangalitsa - This is an unusual breed of pigs, which is very popular among pig breeders. It has a great advantage over other breeds in the form of unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention and nutrition, as well as quick wits. Representatives of this breed become attached to their owner. Outwardly, they resemble lamb due to thick curls of wool. By their nature, they are compared with dogs, as they are really smart.
Origin of view and description
Photo: Hungarian Mangalica
Hungarian mangalitsa known to breeders of pigs in the form of pets known for several centuries. For the first time this breed was mentioned in 1833, when the Hungarian breeder Josef was first able to cross domestic and wild pigs. The result was a very interesting and most suitable for breeding at home offspring, which gave rise to a new breed of domestic pigs - the Hungarian mangalitsa.
It was this breed that was unpretentious to the conditions of detention, could eat pasture like their wild ancestors and at the same time gave tasty and very juicy meat. Another significant advantage that distinguished pigs is the ability to tolerate cold climates and severe frosts in outdoor conditions.
It should be noted that the breeder was a representative of a noble family and bore the title of Archduke. Other monasteries became interested in the result of his activity. After breeding these pigs, livestock breeding in monasteries became very popular and successful. Without requiring any special efforts for breeding, the animals gave tasty meat and lard, which became very popular among famous chefs of that time.
Around 1900, Romanian and Ukrainian farmers became interested in the meat of these animals. Very quickly, this breed of pigs began to be bred in these countries. During this period, the animal population increased to almost 35,000 individuals. Farmers grazed them in the vast expanses of meadows, valleys and fields.
After World War II, the number of pigs was on the verge of extinction. In total, no more than 800 individuals remained. This was due to the fact that these pigs were greasy, and at that time everyone was trying to breed meat breeds of domestic animals. However, in Hungary immediately began to save the endangered breed of pigs.
For this purpose, a special association for the salvation of traditional pig farming was even formed. This direction was supported by pig farmers from other countries. Together, the population of the Hungarian mangalits was increased to 8,500 individuals.
Appearance and features
Photo: What does the Hungarian brazier look like?
Representatives of this breed have an unusual and very interesting appearance. They simply cannot be confused with any other breed. At first glance it’s not always possible to understand that we are faced with a pig. Thick, curly hair covers the entire body of the animal. In the cold season, a thick undercoat appears, thanks to which it is easier for animals to endure the harsh climate and cold.
Interesting fact. Breeders found that if representatives of this breed are kept in a warm, dry shed, thick wool will simply fall out as unnecessary.
Possible colors for the Hungarian mangalitsa:
- brown red;
Black and brown-brown colors are almost never found. In this regard, at the moment, breeders are making a lot of efforts to increase the number of these individuals. The color scheme can vary depending on age, season and climatic conditions, and even on the type of food and the type of soil where the animal is kept.
Another distinctive feature of the representatives of this breed is the ears directed forward and the presence of a dark Wellman spot on them at the lower edge. The size of this spot reaches 1.5-3 centimeters.
Features of the appearance of mangalits:
- strong, elongated physique;
- powerful, very strong skeleton;
- sagging belly;
- medium-sized stigma with a slightly upturned, directed upward patch;
- medium-sized ears, covered with thick hair;
- straight line of the back;
- expressive eyes with thick long eyelashes;
- thickened tail, at the end of which a brush of wool;
- in purebred pigs, regardless of the color of the coat, the patch is almost always black.
Where does the Hungarian brazier live?
Photo: Hungarian downy brazier
In vivo, Hungarian mangalitsa does not occur in nature. This is an exclusively domestic breed of pig. For keeping and breeding at home, minimum conditions will be required. They do not need a barn or a heated room. Thanks to the dense coat with undercoat, animals tolerate cold and frost well.
Mandatory conditions for keeping animals:
- free space. A prerequisite is the presence of large free space. Ideally, provide pig walking in fields, meadows, valleys. If this is not possible, it is advisable to fence the animals with an enclosure with a net on which they can walk freely;
- a large amount of hay. In the cold season, animals like to literally dig into the hay. Ideally, you need to take care of the presence of a pigsty along with an open corral;
- a large amount of clean water. The Hungarian mangalitsa is very neat and tidy, which is why it needs water for bathing. In hot weather in summer, she needs to refresh herself in the water.
When kept in open enclosures or pens, there must be a canopy under which you can hide from the scorching sun in the summer heat. If this requirement is neglected, the animal can become seriously ill. Thick hair makes pigs easily tolerate frost and cold, but the scorching sun and heat can cause overheating.
What does the Hungarian brazier eat?
Photo: Pig Hungarian mangalitsa
One of the main advantages of this breed is undemanding nutrition. Feeding pigs is not difficult, as they easily gain body weight from simple pasture. Hay, wild-growing plant species, and roots are used as feed.
In addition to this, you can use:
- fresh vegetables and greens: potatoes, rutabaga, beets, zucchini, etc .;
- cereals and crops. Mangalits are very fond of corn, as well as corn porridge;
- bran, pulp;
- food waste;
- fruits, apples, pears;
- shoots, roots and deciduous part of various types of vegetation, in particular wild ones - oak, nettle, chestnut, etc .;
- prepared vitamin and dry feed mixtures designed specifically for pigs.
A favorite delicacy of animals are corn cobs. Weedy plants are a pleasure to eat. In the process of grazing, frogs, snails, small lizards, and worms can eat. A prerequisite for breeding pigs is the presence of large quantities of clean water in the drinkers.
In the warm season, in many countries where Hungarian mangalits are bred, they are simply chased out for grazing, where they themselves are happy to pinch grass for almost the whole day. Especially good animals gain body weight when their diet is diverse, balanced, enriched with vitamins and minerals. As food additives, it is required to periodically mix chalk or red clay in food in small quantities.
In no case should newborn piglets eat the food that adults feed on. Otherwise, they become lethargic, inactive, can get an upset digestive system and can even die. Piglets, which are 10-14 days old, can be gradually introduced into the diet fried barley in combination with chalk and bone meal, as well as barley mash.
At the age of one month, compound feed is introduced into the diet, and at the age of one and a half months they are weaned from the mother and the diet is gradually expanded. It is believed that from the age of four months, piglets can already be completely transferred to an adult diet without any restrictions and prohibitions.
Features of character and lifestyle
Photo: Hungarian Mangalica Boar
By nature, Hungarian mangalits have a very calm disposition. They are pretty smart and smart, so they are often compared with dogs. Pigs really become attached to their master. They love space and freedom. To keep pigs at home, it is imperative to provide them with a spacious paddock, or if it is possible to simply let them graze in a field or meadow.
Pigs of this breed are notable for their cleanliness. Therefore, they must ensure access to clean water. It is also necessary to monitor cleanliness in the pen and often change the litter. Hungarian mangalits tolerates the cold quite easily thanks to the warm, curly hair. However, in winter they need a large amount of hay, in which pigs like to bury themselves.
Distinctive features of the breed are considered unpretentious to the conditions of detention and nutrition. Animals are naturally endowed with stable, strong immunity. They are not prone to disease, but need timely vaccination.
In summer, it is difficult for animals to withstand heat and heat, so they need a canopy to shelter from the scorching sun and create a shadow. Hungarian mangalits have not only disease resistance, but also the ability to quickly adapt to conditions of detention and changing climatic conditions.
Now you know how to contain the Hungarian brazier. Let’s see how to breed them properly.
Social structure and reproduction
Photo: Hungarian mangalits cub
Adults reach sexual maturity by about 8-9 months. Most often, the first birth of piglets will not be numerous. In general, breeders of this breed note that the birth of a large number of piglets is unusual for sows of this breed. Childbirth usually passes easily, without complications. Piglets die extremely rarely. No special measures for the processing and cutting of the umbilical cord are required.
Interesting fact. On average, one sow gives birth to 5-6 piglets. If 8 or more babies are born, this is an indication that the sow is not purebred.
The second and subsequent offspring are usually more numerous. The negative qualities of this breed are low milk production of sows and low fecundity.
Newborn piglets are born outwardly striped, which makes them look like wild pigs. Many farmers give injections of iron to newborns to prevent iron deficiency anemia.
At birth, the first time it is extremely important to observe the diet. For 5-6 days, you can start to gradually introduce complementary foods - roasted barley and liquid mash. Around the same time, it is necessary to break off the fangs of the piglets to prevent injury to the mother during feeding. Starting from the third, fourth week, they independently eat vegetables, corncobs.
By the end of the first month, animals may be weaned. At this age, they can be sold, as they can eat food that adults consume. The average duration of individuals that do not go to slaughter is about 20-23 years.
Natural enemies of the Hungarian brazier
Photo: What does the Hungarian brazier look like?
Due to the fact that pigs of the Hungarian mangalitsa breed live exclusively at home, they have no natural enemies. Due to the fact that pigs were raised more to obtain bacon or fat, in the post-war period in the late 40s and early 50s, their numbers decreased to catastrophically low numbers.
Representatives of this breed are distinguished by excellent immunity and good health. However, zoologists and veterinarians warn of the need for timely vaccination. Otherwise, the probability of infection of animals with standard infectious diseases is high.
Possible diseases of the Hungarian brazier
- ear and x-shaped tick.
Another important nuance is the timely cleaning of the pig pen and the need for access to clean water. The absence of these conditions can trigger the development of diseases. Overheating in the hot period can cause lethargy, lack of appetite, and even death of the animal.
Veterinarians also recommend periodically treating pigs against helminths. Pigs of various breeds are prone to helminth infections through food waste, worms, fish, frogs, etc. Another important criterion is to try to avoid drafts, dampness, and excessive moisture. Pigs can get pneumonia if the humidity in the room exceeds 70%.
Population and species status
Photo: Hungarian Mangalica
To date, the number of Hungarian mangalits does not cause any concern. Farmers from all over the world breed these unusual piglets. It is worth noting that among the culinary experts, animal meat is very much appreciated due to its special qualities. The meat is distinguished by excellent taste and uniform fatty layers.
Recently, the number of these animals has been growing in Ukraine, the Russian Federation, and Great Britain. In the historical homeland of the Hungarian manganese - in Hungary animals are considered a national treasure. A number of laws have been adopted on the territory of this state, on the basis of which help and privileges are provided to pig pig breeders for breeding these animals.
According to preliminary estimates of breeders, the number of individuals of this breed exceeds 15,000. Animals are bred in various parts of the globe. The exception is countries where the climate is hot all year round.
Hungarian mangalitsa - a valuable breed of domestic pigs. Their meat has excellent taste and is highly valued by famous chefs from around the world.