The habitat of the yellow perch is very wide. These fish live throughout Europe, with the exception of Italy, Spain and the Nordic countries, as well as in Russia and Asia.
The exceptions are the Amur basin, Lake Balkhash and reservoirs located east of Kolyma. Latin name Perca fluviatilis.
In 1919, this fish was introduced to the upper part of the Amur basin, as well as to Lake Kenon, located near the city of Chita. The yellow perch adapted well there and began to be of commercial interest. Perch can live in various reservoirs, whether it be rivers, lakes, flowing ponds, reservoirs or brackish lakes. It is found in some mountain lakes, located at an altitude of about 1000 m. The yellow perch has a bright and beautiful color.Yellow perch (Perca flavescens).
His back is dark green, his sides are greenish-yellow. Also on the sides are dark transverse stripes, the number of which can vary from 5 to 9. The ventral fins, as well as the caudal and anal, are painted in bright red, and the pectoral fins are yellow. The first dorsal fin is bluish in color, and a large black spot is located on its back. The second dorsal fin is greenish yellow. The eyes of a perch are orange. Perches living in different reservoirs can have different colors, for example, perches living in forest peat lakes are almost completely dark. In large bodies of water, such as lakes and reservoirs, perch is represented by several ecological forms, which are formed depending on the habitat. This is a small coastal perch, grass perch and deep bass. Representatives of the grassy form of perch grow slowly. Their diet mainly consists of zooplankton and the larvae of various insects.
Deep bass is a predator, has high growth rates and grows to large sizes.The sizes of yellow perches are not very large.
The largest individuals can grow up to 40 cm in length with a body weight of more than 2 kg. A case of catching a perch of 55 cm with a weight of 3 kg was recorded. Large perches grow not so much in length as in height and width, as a result of which they become humpbacked.
Yellow perches become sexually mature: in males this occurs at the age of 1-2 years, in females - at 3 years of age and even later. Spawning of perch takes place at a water temperature of 7-8 to 15 ° C. In the middle lane, this process occurs after the pike. Females spawn eggs on last year's plants, roots, branches of willow, driftwood, and sometimes just on the ground. The laid-back caviar has the form of a hollow mesh tube resembling jelly in its consistency. The walls of this pipe are made up of cells. On each side of the cell are 2-3 eggs.Yellow perches have a characteristic striped color.
The eggs are approximately 3.5 mm in diameter. The yolk contains a large fat drop. Clutches of perch caviar resemble lace ribbons hung on various underwater objects. How long and wide the masonry tape will be is determined by the size of the female. If the female is small, then the length of the masonry will be from 12 to 40 cm, but if the female is large, then the length of the masonry can reach one meter or even more. In waters near the shores, short but numerous clutches are more common, but sometimes large ones are also found. But for the most part, large masonry is done in deep places. Such conclusions can be made by measuring the masonry that were laid on artificial spawning grounds - spruce brooms, which were lowered to different depths.
The importance of the gelatinous substance surrounding the eggs, apparently, lies in their protection against saprolegnia better known to us as mold, as well as from natural enemies, which are various fish and invertebrates. In shallow and transparent lakes, you can visually observe the delayed clutches and count them, which allows you to determine how many females of mature age enter the herd. Depending on their size, females of perch are able to lay from 12 to 200-300 thousand eggs at a time, and in some cases even up to 900 thousand.Yellow perch is a welcome prey for fishing enthusiasts.
The first year of life, juvenile perch spends mainly in the coastal zone. At this time, their main food is zooplankton thickets. A perch can start predating, while still very small, only 4 cm long. But most often this transition to predatory nutrition occurs when the perch grows up to 10 cm. The perch displays its predatory nature most of all at the end of summer, when ponds abound with the grown fry of fish, which are easy prey for perches.
Perch can migrate to spawning and feeding grounds. It leaves large rivers and lakes and often rises into tributaries, where spawning occurs on spills. Having finished spawning, the perch goes to fattening. One of the feeding sites is the Meshchera Lowland lakes located in the floodplains of the Pry and Oka rivers, where large numbers of juvenile perch come to fattening at the end of July, as well as individuals with a length of 10 to 14 cm. Perch can also eat their own juveniles. With his appetite, he surpasses even pike: perch per 1 kg of meat requires 4.9 kg of other fish, and pike for the same 1 kg needs 3.5 kg. Since perch fish is very widespread and numerous, it itself becomes a welcome prey for other fish species. Perch is happy to eat perch, catfish, pike and burbot. Birds such as gulls, ospreys, and terns also prey on perch.
Perch is caught in large quantities. In some lakes, this particular fish makes up the bulk of the catch. The local population eats it with pleasure. Since the perch is incredibly gluttonous, catching it to amateur fishermen is not difficult, and at any time of the year. To do this, use such tackle as fishing rods, spinning rods, mugs, tracks, mormyshki, spinners. The perch, by virtue of its greed, readily pecks, and, even having torn off the hook once, grabs the nozzle again and again until it is finally caught. Fishermen say that a perch, after breaking one hook, can take a new one in a few minutes. This is probably due to the fact that the perch weakly feels pain. The fishermen managed to observe such cases when the perch was attached to the hook with an eye, lost it, and then swallowed the same hook, flattered by its own eye. Fishermen also talk about cases when perches attack small fish entangled in nets, thereby replenishing the catch. Not afraid of perch and noise. There is even a special way of ice fishing for perch, in which one end of the oak board is lowered into the hole, and the other is beaten, thus luring the perch.Yellow perch lives in lakes and rivers.
Gatchina fishermen who want to catch a large perch intentionally create noise with their fishing rod, which is somewhat reminiscent of the sound that jumping fish make.
To my liking, I will dip the piles of destroyed mill dams, large stones and flooded driftwood, among which he hides. And small perchs can even climb into bottles and cans of dark glass, which are put to the bottom. In such a simple way, young fishermen go fishing for perch. In those reservoirs where valuable commercial fish live, such as carp, trout, pike perch, bream, whitefish, perch are considered weed fish, because it eats the same as the listed fish, and in addition, eats their eggs. In such cases, the perch population needs to be reduced due to increased catch and breeding restrictions. To achieve this, the so-called artificial spawning grounds descend into the reservoir, which, after the perch caviar is laid on them, are removed from the reservoir.