Goldfinch belongs to the order Charadriiformes, the family of snipe. In French, the name of the bird sounds like "Le chevalier Arlequin", which translates as "motley knight, harlequin knight".
The male in mating plumage resembles a secular dandy, a smartish young man who goes to the ball. Too black and white plumage looks like an elegant tailcoat, for which the bird got its secular nickname.
Goldfinch is a rather large representative of the snipe family. Body dimensions are larger than a thrush, up to 35 cm, wingspan reaches 53 cm, and weight 170 g.
From afar, a dandy can be mistaken for another sandpiper - a herbalist, although the legs are longer, which distinguishes this bird from all other waders. In adult birds in mating plumage, the general color tone is slate-black. Feathers of wings and backs are edged with white edges and decorated with white, oppositely arranged specks on both sides of the fan.Goldfinch (Tringa erythropus).
The feathers of the underside of the chest, neck, and abdomen (but not all) have white narrow end stripes. The plumage of the back of the back, axillary and lower back is white. The primary wing feathers are painted black and brown, on the tail feathers are blackish with white transverse stripes, and only the lower tail coverts are painted in slate black with white end stripes.
The iris of the eye is brown, a thin, slightly curved beak has a brownish-black color, the base of the mandible is pink or slightly darker. The four-fingered long legs are also reddish-brown, sometimes almost black, and only on the folds is a reddish color visible. After the mating season, males and females practically do not differ in color of plumage.Legs of a dandy are black in summer, reddish-brown or orange in winter.
In winter, the back and wings of birds are brownish-gray with white spots, the tail is of a lighter shade, the stripes on the tail are not too pronounced. The bottom of the body is white, but the sides of the neck and chest are decorated with smoky dots. Young dandies are similar to adult birds in winter plumage, but the upper side of the body is darker, and the beak is lighter in color than in adults, the legs are colored orange-yellow.
Listen to dandy's voice//animalreader.ru/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/shegol-carduelis-carduelis.mp3
The abundance of the species is not too large. In the natural habitat, the dandy comes across infrequently. He avoids the presence of man. The species distribution area in Russia stretches from the Kanin Peninsula to Chukotka. On the Kola Peninsula, the range of the dandy is advanced to the Barents Sea. It occurs in Eurasia, lives in the tundra. Birds are also found along the shores of Lake Ladoga.If necessary, the dandy swims well, in case of danger dives.
They prefer habitats near shallow water: mud banks overgrown with grass and the edges of lakes. In Scandinavia, the dandy biotopes are located in open places in the forest: in swamps, conflagrations, and the banks of water bodies. A goldfinch winters in Asia, flies to China and Taiwan, as well as in the southern regions of Europe and northern Africa, rare birds cross the equator.
Snipe nests in the tundra and forest-tundra zones among marshes and marshy wastelands. In a small hole in the soil with a diameter of about 7-8 cm, the female lays 4 eggs on a bed of grass and leaves of dwarf birch. The color of the shell goes well with the color of unpretentious tundra vegetation: greenish-creamy, light green, light brown. On the surface of the eggs are well reddish-brown and deeper bluish-gray streaks. The average size is 47.28 × 32 mm.After the birth of the chicks, the brood with the remaining parent moves closer to the pond.
Masonry usually occurs in the last week of May, in rare cases, the female dandy lays eggs at the very beginning of June. Goldfinch hides its nest under the branches of dwarf pines. Perhaps the trees serve as a wonderful landmark for the birds among the monotonous tundra landscape. The male goldfinch hatches eggs most often. In case of danger, he may quietly leave the masonry.
In mid-June, the first down jackets appear. The head of the chicks is covered with a brownish-creamy fluff, a strip of blackish shade is located on the forehead, the same stripes pass through the frenum and along the eyes. The upper side of the head and the upper body are blackish-brown. The lower body is white with a cream tint. Mature chicks molt from August to February.Goldfinch is considered a typical monogamous.
In adult goldfinches, full post-breeding molting lasts from August to January, and during the breeding season, from March to May. Some adult birds nesting on the Kola Peninsula are ready for the winter period by August 14th. They are kept in small flocks.
Goldfinches - lovers of swimming and rocking on the waves, often sit right on the water. Goldfinches are also good at diving, and this feature helps birds escape from predators. On take-off, they shout out the melodious song “thoyoite, thoyoite”, and in moments of danger or when the birds are alarmed by the sudden appearance of animals or humans, an alarming “tick ... tick ... tick” is heard. The dandy gives such signals if the predator approaches the nest.In autumn and winter, birds of both sexes are almost indistinguishable from each other.
Birds find food in the water column, thanks to their long legs, they can go quite far into the water, sometimes along the abdomen. With a strong blowing wind that picks up small waves on the water surface, waders row in a row on the windward shore and cleverly pull out various animals from the water.
The diet of dandies is made up of mollusks, about 50%, then caddis flies, bugs, larvae of flies. During feeding, birds gather on lakes, ponds, salt ponds. On the fly they can feed along the coast of the sea or along the course of the river.
By all accounts, a dandy is not a dandy at all. Birds belong to different orders: Charadriiformes and Passeriformes. They are united by only the general sounding of the name, but this is not a reason to consider different birds to be relatives.